The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals specifies design conditions for 6400+ locations. This zip file has "macro defined" sets for each in EnergyPlus V7.1 (and later) format.
Several files are included:
2013_DesignDayCityCountry.csv - this is the key to countries, cities and the key used for the epmacro defines to obtain the data
2013_Annual_DesignDay_AllRegions.zip - this is a zip of the following zips:
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_1_Africa.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 1: Africa
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_2_Asia.zip- design day definitions for WMO Region 2: Asia
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_3_South_America.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 3: South America
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_4_North_And_Central_America.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 4: North and Central America
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_5_Southwest_Pacific.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 5: Southwest Pacific
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_6_Europe.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 6: Europe
2013_Annual_DesignDay_Region_7_Antarctica.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 7: Antarctica
Climatic Design Conditions are discussed in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 14, 2013 edition.
Annual Design Conditions are (represented by the attachments in EnergyPlus SizingPeriod:Designday form) also discussed in this chapter.