The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals specifies design conditions for 6400+ locations. These zip files have "macro defined" sets for each in EnergyPlus V7.1 (and later) format.
Monthly design conditions for dry bulb temperature (with mean coincident wet bulb temperature) and wet bulb temperature (with mean coincident dry bulb temperature) for .4% and 2% are included.
Several files are included:
2013_DesignDayCityCountry.csv - this is the key to countries, cities and the key used for the epmacro defines to obtain the data
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_AllRegions.zip - this is a zip of the following zips:
(the following files are found, individually in the knowledge base article: Design Conditions Definitions (Monthly-Individual Regions) for all ASHRAE 2009 Design Condition Locations
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_1_Africa.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 1: Africa
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_2_Asia.zip- design day definitions for WMO Region 2: Asia
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_3_South_America.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 3: South America
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_4_North_And_Central_America.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 4: North and Central America
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_5_Southwest_Pacific.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 5: Southwest Pacific
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_6_Europe.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 6: Europe
2013_Monthly_DesignDay_Region_7_Antarctica.zip - design day definitions for WMO Region 7: Antarctica
Climatic Design Conditions are discussed in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 14, 2013 edition.
Monthly Design Conditions (represented in the attachment in EnergyPlus SizingPeriod:Designday form) and how they are to be used are also discussed in this chapter.